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Pac-Man

Pac-Man

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Pac-Man (パックマン, Pakkuman?) is a Japanese arcade game developed by Namco (now Namco Bandai) and licensed for distribution in the U.S. by Midway, first released in Japan on May 22, 1980.[1][2] Immensely popular in the United States from its original release to the present day, Pac-Man is universally considered as one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture. Upon its release, the game became a social phenomenon[4] that sold a bevy of merchandise and also inspired, among other things, an animated television series. It also inspired the Buckner & Garcia single Pac-Man Fever, which in the first half of 1982 became a #9, million-selling pop single.[5]

When Pac-Man was released, most arcade video games in North America were primarily space shooters such as Space Invaders, Defender, or Asteroids. The most visible minority were sports games that were mostly derivative of Pong. Pac-Man succeeded by creating a new genre and appealing to both males and females.[6] Pac-Man is often credited with being a landmark in video game history, and is among the most famous arcade games of all time.[7] The character also appears in more than 30 officially licensed game spin-offs,[8] as well as in numerous unauthorized clones and bootlegs.[9]

History

The game was developed primarily by Namco employee Toru Iwatani over 18 months. The original title was pronounced pakku-man (パックマン, pakku-man?) and was inspired by the Japanese onomatopoeic phrase paku-paku taberu (パクパク食べる, paku-paku taberu?),[10] where paku-paku describes (the sound of) the mouth movement when widely opened and then closed in succession.[11] Although it is often cited that the character’s shape was inspired by a pizza missing a slice,[4] he admitted in a 1986 interview that it was a half-truth and the character design also came from simplifying and rounding out the Japanese character for mouth, kuchi (口) as well as the basic concept of eating.[12] Iwatani's efforts to appeal to a wider audience — beyond the typical demographics of young boys and teenagers — would eventually lead him to adding elements of a maze. The result was a game he entitled Puck Man. When first launched in Japan by Namco, the game received a lukewarm response, as Space Invaders and other similar games were more popular at the time.[6]

The following year, the game was picked up for manufacture in the U.S. by Bally division Midway, under the altered title Pac-Man (see below). American audiences welcomed a breakaway from conventions set by Space Invaders, which resulted in unprecedented popularity and revenue that rivaled its successful predecessor, as even Iwatani was impressed with U.S. sales.[12] The game soon became a worldwide phenomenon within the video game industry, resulting in numerous sequels and merchandising tie-ins. Pac-Man's success bred imitation, and an entire genre of maze-chase video games soon emerged.

Competitors and distributors were taken completely by surprise by Pac-Man's success in North America in 1980. Marketing executives who saw Pac-Man at a trade show prior to release completely overlooked the game (along with the now classic Defender), while they looked to a racing car game called Rally-X as the game to outdo that year.[13] The appeal of Pac-Man was such that the game caught on immediately with the public; it quickly became far more popular than anything seen in the game industry before. Pac-Man outstripped Asteroids as the greatest selling arcade game of the time,[14] and would go on to sell over 350,000 units.[15]

Localization

For the North American market, the name was changed from Puck Man to Pac-Man, as it was thought that vandals would be likely to change the P in Puck to an F, forming a common expletive. Puck Man machines can be found throughout Europe.

When Midway released Pac-Man in the United States, the company also redesigned the cabinet's artwork, as the Namco-style artwork was more costly to mass produce. Puck Man was painted overall white featuring multicolored artwork on both sides with cheerful Pac-Man characters in different poses while Pac-Man was painted yellow, with very simple and easy-to-stencil artwork on both sides front and back.

Game Play

The player controls Pac-Man through a maze, eating dots. When all dots are eaten, Pac-Man is taken to the next stage. Four ghosts (known to most gamers as Blinky, Pinky, Inky, and Clyde) roam the maze, trying to catch Pac-Man. If a ghost touches Pac-Man, a life is lost. When all lives have been lost, the game ends.

Near the corners of the maze are four larger, flashing dots known as energizers or power pellets that provide Pac-Man with the temporary ability to eat the ghosts. The ghosts turn deep blue, reverse direction, and usually move more slowly when Pac-Man eats an energizer. When a ghost is eaten, its eyes return to the ghost pen where it is regenerated in its normal color. Blue ghosts flash white before they become dangerous again and the amount of time the ghosts remain vulnerable varies from one board to the next, but the time period generally becomes shorter as the game progresses. In later stages, the ghosts do not change colors at all, but still reverse direction when an energizer is eaten.

In addition to dots and energizers, bonus items, usually referred to as fruits (though not all items are fruits) appear near the center of the maze twice per level. These items score extra bonus points when eaten. The items change and bonus values increase throughout the game.

Pac-Man is awarded a single bonus life at 10,000 points by default. DIP switches inside the machine can change the required points or disable the bonus life altogether.

The unique game design inspired game publishers to be innovative rather than conservative, and encouraged them to speculate on game designs that broke from existing genres. Pac-Man introduced an element of humor into video games that designers sought to imitate, and appealed to a wider demographic than the teenage boys who flocked to the action-oriented games.

The Killer List of Videogames lists Pac-Man as the #1 video game of all time on its "Top 10 Most Popular Video games" list.[16] Pac-Man, and other video games of the same general type, are often cited as an identifying cultural experience of Generation X, particularly its older members, sometimes called Baby Busters.

Ghosts

Initially, Pac-Man’s enemies were referred to as monsters on the arcade cabinet, but soon became colloquially known as ghosts. The ghosts are bound by the maze in the same way as Pac-Man, but generally move slightly faster than the player, but they slow down when turning corners and slow down significantly while passing through the tunnels on the sides of the maze. (Pac-Man can pass through these tunnels unhindered.) This is counteracted by the fact that Pac-Man slows down slightly while eating dots, so if a ghost is chasing Pac-Man while he is eating a long chain of dots, he will slowly, but surely be caught. The red ghost speeds up after a certain number of dots are eaten (this occurs earlier in higher levels). The accelerated Blinky is unofficially called Cruise Elroy,[17] although opinions differ on the origins of this term.

Names

The ghosts are introduced during attract mode by the following names and nicknames:

Monster Color Original Puck Man[18] American Pac-Man
Character Translation Nickname Translation Alternate
character
Alternate
nickname
Character Nickname
Red Oikake (追いかけ) chaser Akabei (赤ベイ) red guy Urchin Macky Shadow Blinky
Pink Machibuse (待ち伏せ) ambusher Pinky (ピンキー) pink guy Romp Micky Speedy Pinky
Cyan Kimagure (気まぐれ) fickle Aosuke (青助) blue guy Stylist Mucky Bashful Inky
Orange Otoboke (お惚け) stupid Guzuta (愚図た) slow guy Crybaby Mocky Pokey Clyde

Behavior

A ghost always maintains its current direction until it reaches an intersection, at which point it may turn left or right. Periodically, the ghosts will reverse direction and head for the corners of the maze (commonly referred to as "scatter mode"), before reverting to their normal behavior. In an interview, Iwatani stated that he had designed each ghost with its own distinct personality in order to keep the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play. However, while players generally agree that the behaviors of each ghost add depth and challenge to the game, no consensus has been reached on exactly how to describe those behaviors.[19]

Despite the seemingly random nature of some of the ghosts, their movements are strictly deterministic, enabling experienced players to devise precise sequences of movements for each level (termed "patterns") that allow them to complete the levels without ever being caught. A later revision of the game code altered the ghosts' behavior, but new patterns were soon developed for that behavior as well. Players have also learned how to exploit other flaws in the ghosts' behavior, including finding places where they can hide indefinitely without moving, and a code bug occasionally allows Pac-Man to pass through a non-blue ghost unharmed. Several patterns have been developed to exploit this bug. A common rumor speculates that this only happens when Pac-Man's mouth is completely closed.[20]

Intermissions

During the opening boards of the game, the linearity of the game's progression is interrupted by "intermissions" — humorous animated scenes featuring Pac-Man and the ghosts. There are three different intermissions:

  1. Blinky chases Pac-Man off the screen. Blinky reappears as a vulnerable blue monster coming the opposite direction, being chased by a giant Pac-Man. This intermission plays after Board 2.
  2. Blinky chases Pac-Man across the screen, but his pelt is caught on a tack in the floor, and part of it is ripped off revealing his pinkness. This intermission plays after Board 5.
  3. Blinky, with the corner of his pelt sewn back on, chases Pac-Man across the screen. Blinky reappears coming back the opposite direction, pinked, dragging his pelt behind him. This intermission plays after Boards 9, 13 and 17.

Perfect Play

A perfect Pac-Man game occurs when the player completes all 256 levels with a maximum point score and without losing a life.[20] However, the final board is not intact (due to a bug) and thus not entirely playable. Nevertheless, the first perfect game was verified by the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard on July 3, 1999.[21] Billy Mitchell, of Hollywood, Florida, achieved the feat in six hours. To attain the maximum possible score of 3,333,360 points, it was necessary for Mitchell to eat every fruit, every Power Pellet, every blue ghost and every dot for 256 boards without losing a single life,[22] but then it gets complicated. The reason a player must not lose a life through the first 255 boards is the complex final split-screen of board 256. Among the jumbled mess on the right side are 9 pellets (90 points) that are actually replaced after a life is lost. So to maximize the potential points, a player needs all of the bonus lives intact (the reappearance of pellets is a result of the code bug on this board; it doesn't happen on any of the first 255 screens).[22]

Pac-Man Bugged Screen

Split-Screen Level

This game technically has no end; the player will be given new boards to clear as long as he or she retains at least one life. However, due to a glitch in the game, the right side of the 256th board is a garbled mess of text and symbols rendering the level unplayable. This bug, known as a "kill screen" occurs because of a bug in the subroutine that draws the fruit at the bottom of the screen that indicate the current level. Normally, at most seven fruits are displayed, regardless of the current screen, but since the level number is stored in a single byte, level 256 (100h) rolls over to 0h in the subroutine, and 256 fruit are drawn, corrupting the bottom of the screen and the entire right half of the maze. Enthusiasts refer to this as the "Final Level," the "Split-Screen Level," or simply as the ending. Although there are claims that someone with enough knowledge of the maze pattern can play through it, it is generally considered impossible to clear via legitimate means.

However, in December 1982, an eight-year-old boy named Jeffrey R. Yee supposedly received a letter from U.S. President Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a worldwide record of 6,131,940 points, a score only possible if the player has passed the Split-Screen Level.[22] Whether or not this event happened as described has remained in heated debate amongst video game circles since its supposed occurrence. In September 1983, Walter Day, Chief Scorekeeper at the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard, took the U.S. National Video Game Team on a tour of the East Coast to visit video game players who claimed they could get through the "Split-Screen." No video game player could demonstrate this ability. Later, in 1999, Billy Mitchell offered $100,000 to anyone who could provably pass through the Split-Screen Level before January 1, 2000; there is no evidence that anyone could.[22]

Through tinkering, the details of the Split-Screen Level can be revealed. As playable through arcade game emulator MAME some ROMs of the game are equipped with a "rack test" within the DIP switches that will automatically clear a level of all dots as soon as it begins. This method not only makes reaching the 256th board easier (thus making detailed analysis possible), but also allows for a demonstration of what happens after the board has been cleared.

Because the right side of the maze has been corrupted in this board, Pac-Man and the ghosts can move freely throughout the right side of the screen, barring some fractured pieces of the maze. Other symbols also entail power pills, which must be eaten for the player to continue (unlike the unglitched boards, if Pac-Man loses a life, the pills on the right side of the screen will reset after being eaten). Because the maze fracture blockades are "placed" in many locations, it is difficult — if not impossible — to locate them all.

If the board is cleared, the game restarts from the first board without error, once again repeating through 256. However, while the power-ups and intermissions repeat from the opening of the game, the monsters will retain their speed and invulnerability to power pellets from the later boards.

World Championship

On June 5, 2007, the first Pac-Man World Championship was held in New York City, which brought together ten competitors from eight countries to play the new Pac-Man Championship Edition just prior to its release on Xbox Live Arcade. The top two scorers, Robert Glashuettner of Austria and Carlos Daniel Borrego of Mexico, competed for the championship in a single five-minute round. Borrego was named Pac-Man World Champion and won an Xbox 360 console, specially decorated with Pac-Man artwork and signed by Toru Iwatani.[23][24]

Ports

Pac-Man is one of the few games to have been consistently re-released for over two decades. In the 1980s, it was released for the Apple II series, Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Atari 8-bit computers, Intellivision, Commodore 64, and the Nintendo Entertainment System (1987 and 1990). In the handheld world, it was released on the Game Boy (1991), Sega Game Gear (1991), Neo-Geo Pocket Color (1999), Pac-Man: Special Color Edition for the Game Boy Color (1999), Pac-Man Collection for the Game Boy Advance (2001), and it is unlockable in Pac 'n Roll for the Nintendo DS. However, it has been most widely distributed in Namco's long-running Namco Museum series, first for the PlayStation in 1996 and for each major console released since, as well as the Game Boy Advance, PSP, and Nintendo DS. An Xbox 360 port was released via Xbox Live Arcade on August 9, 2006. Pac-Man is also available in its original form as part of the GameTap service. On September 12, 2006 a port was released for play on the popular iPod music player. Pac-Man was never ported to the Atari 7800 home video game system. However, there have been efforts to hack the pre-existing Ms. Pac-Man cartridge to create the original Pac-Man (as well as other Pac-Variants) for it.[25]

Namco has repeatedly re-released this game to arcades. In 2001, Namco released a 20-Year Reunion cabinet, featuring Ms. Pac-Man and Galaga, that permits the unlocking of Pac-Man for play. In 2005, Namco released a board openly featuring all three of the games on the 20-Year Reunion board in honor of Pac-Man's 25th Anniversary. The NES version later became a Classic NES Series title for the Game Boy Advance, and was also released for download via the Wii's Virtual Console service in May 2007.

Namco's wireless division, Namco Networks America Inc., released a line of Pac-Man games for cell phones in 2002, starting with the original arcade version and following up with Pac-Man game extensions like Pac-Man Bowling and Pac-Man Pinball. This division also launched a networked game, Ms. Pac-Man For Prizes, in 2004. Pac-Man mobile games are available on both BREW and Java platforms across major cellular carriers, as well as on Palm PDAs and Windows PC phones.

Pac-Man Atari 2600 Cartridge

Atari 2600 Port

The Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man was developed by programmer Tod Frye and published in 1982 by Atari. It was the first port of the arcade game, Atari being the licensee for the video game console rights. Although Atari sold seven million units to a user base of ten million, this port may have been rushed to market and its quality was widely criticized. Having manufactured twelve million cartridges with the expectation that the game would increase sales of its console, Atari incurred large financial losses from remaining unsold inventory. This was one of the catalysts that led to the video game crash of 1983, second only to the home video game version of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in terms of unsold inventory.

Spin-Offs

Sequels

  • Arcade
    • Ms. Pac-Man (1981)
    • Ms. Pac-Man Plus (1982)
    • Super Pac-Man (1982)
    • Pac-Man Plus (1982) - unauthorized title created by Bally Midway
    • Jr. Pac-Man (1983) - unauthorized title created by Bally Midway
    • Pac & Pal (1983)
    • Pac-Man & Chomp Chomp (1983)
    • Professor Pac-Man (1983) - unauthorized title created by Bally Midway
    • Pac-Land (1984)
    • Pac-Mania (1987)
    • Pac-Man VR (1996) created by Virtuality
    • Pac-Man Arrangement (1996) - released as part of Namco Classics Collection Volume 2
    • Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga Class of 1981 (2000)
    • Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga/Frogger Classic Combo (2000)
    • Pac-Man: 25th Anniversary (2005)
  • Pinball
    • Mr. & Mrs. Pac-Man (1982) - unauthorized title created by Bally Midway
    • Baby Pac-Man (1982) - video game/pinball hybrid; unauthorized title created by Bally Midway
  • Console
    • Pac-Attack (based on the Cosmo Gang the Puzzle engine) (1993)
    • Pac-Man 2: The New Adventures (1994)
    • Pac-In-Time (1995)
    • Pac-Man World (1999) (working title was Pac-Man: Ghost Zone)
    • Ms. Pac-Man Maze Madness (2000)
    • Pac-Man: Adventures in Time (2000)
    • Ms. Pac-Man: Quest for the Golden Maze (2001)
    • Pac-Man All Stars (2002)
    • Pac-Man World 2 (2002)
    • Pac-Man Fever (2002)
    • Pac-Man Vs. (2003)
    • Pac-Man Pinball Advance (2005)
    • Pac-Pix (2005)
    • Pac 'n Roll (2005)
    • Pac-Man World 3 (2005)
    • Pac-Man World Rally (2006)
    • Pac-Man Championship Edition (2007)
  • Mobile Phone
    • Ms. Pac-Man for Prizes (2004)
    • Pac-Man Casino Card Games Pack (2004)
    • Pac-Man Casino Slots Pack (2004)
    • Pac-Match! (2004)
    • Pac-Man Puzzle (2004)
    • Pac-Man Pinball (2004)
    • Pac-Man Bowling (2004)
    • Pac-Man's Arcade Corner (2005)

Ms. Pac-Man

Pac-Man spawned numerous sequels, the most significant of which is Ms. Pac-Man. Originally called Crazy Otto, this unauthorized hack of Pac-Man was created by General Computer Corporation and sold to Bally Midway without Namco's permission. The game features several improvements to and changes from the original Pac-Man, including faster game play, more mazes, new intermissions, and moving bonus items. Some consider Ms. Pac-Man to be superior to the original, and even the best in the entire series.[7] Namco sued Midway for exceeding their license. Eventually Bally Midway struck a deal with Namco to officially license Ms. Pac-Man as a sequel.

Bally Midway Spin-Offs

Following Ms. Pac-Man, Bally Midway released several unauthorized spin-offs, such as Pac-Man Plus, Baby Pac-Man, and Professor Pac-Man, resulting in Namco severing business relations with Midway. These other titles were generally considered inferior and unimportant, serving to over saturate the market for Pac-Man games.[26][4]

Pac-Man Championship Edition

Pac-Man Championship Edition

Twenty-six years after the original Pac-Man, Microsoft worked with Toru Iwatani and Namco Bandai to produce a re-envisioning of the game, Pac-Man Championship Edition. It was released for the Xbox Live Arcade on June 6, 2007.

Clones

Main article: Pac-Man clones

Many unauthorized "pirate" versions of the game were also created in order to profit from Pac-Man's fame and playability.

Non-Video Games

In 1982, Milton Bradley released a board game based on Pac-Man[27][28] and another based on Ms. Pac-Man.[29] Several other pocket games and a card game were also produced.[30]

A group of students from the Computer Science department of Simon Fraser University had developed a "life-sized" Pac-Man system, using laptops and mobile phone tracking to track the location of the dots, ghost, and the Pac-Man. It has become a regular activity of Computer Science Frosh Week, and is usually played in Downtown Vancouver.

Pac-Man in Popular Culture

Pac-Man became an icon of video game culture during the 1980s, and a great deal of Pac-Man merchandise was marketed with the character's image, from t-shirts and toys to hand-held video game imitations and pasta.[31] An animated children's cartoon series titled Pac-Man ran on Saturday mornings in the United States from 1982 to 1984 on ABC,[32] and Pac-Man starred on Buckner & Garcia's 1982 album Pac-Man Fever, appearing on the cover, the album title and the title track of the same name.

The soundtrack to the game would be heavily sampled on the Powerpill EP Pac-Man[33], an acid house EP released under one of the aliases of Richard D. James, primarily known as Aphex Twin.

Six Flags Over Texas, a theme park in Arlington, Texas, had a children's play area named Pac-Man Land circa 1981. It was recommissioned as Looney Tunes Land in 1985.[34]

National Football League cornerback Adam Jones plays under the nickname "Pacman", with his jersey having the initial "P" rather than the more customary "A". The name was given to him by his grandmother because at a young age he had a tendency to drink milk with the "voraciousness" of the video game character.[35]

Pac-Man has made several appearances in various formats in the animated TV series Family Guy:

  1. In Season Three's Episode 19, "Stuck Together, Torn Apart", three of the ghosts attempt to cheer up Pac-Man after he and Ms. Pac-Man split up.
  2. In Season Four's Episode 28, "Stewie B. Goode", Stewie Griffin and Brian Griffin get drunk and play a cocktail cabinet version of Pac-Man, eventually getting into an argument over how to play the game.[36]

Pac-Man made an appearance in the Futurama episode, Anthology of Interest II, where he plays a general and needs the help of Fry to defend against the video game invaders.

English comedian Marcus Brigstocke is the originator of the so-called "Pac-Man joke", which has been attributed to a variety of people and has persisted as an internet meme.

In the episode "Soul Survivor" [37] of NBC's Knight Rider, Michael is shown to be playing Pac-Man, much to KITT's distaste: "Playing a video game where circles eat blobs is hardly 'getting into computers'."

Filipino boxer, Manny Pacquiao, is nicknamed "PacMan" as a play on his family name Pacquiao, in addition to describing his aggressive, come-forward boxing style.[38]

Gallery

Pac-Man Atari 2600
Pac-Man Atari 5200
Pac-Man Atari 2600
Pac-Man Atari 5200
Pac-Man Commodore 64
Pac-Man Intellivision
Pac-Man Commodore 64
Pac-Man Intellivision
Pac-Man MSX
Pac-Man Nes
Pac-Man MSX
Pac-Man Nes
Pac-Man Xbox 360
Pac-Man Sam Coupe
Pac-Man Xbox 360
Pac-Man Sam Coupe

References

  1. Namco Bandai Games Inc. (2005-06-02). Bandai Namco press release for 25th Anniversary Edition (Japanese). bandainamcogames.co.jp/. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. “2005年5月22日で生誕25周年を迎えた『パックマン』。 ("Pac-Man celebrates his 25th anniversary on May 22, 2005", seen in image caption)”
  2. Tony Long (10-10-2007 (questionable)). Oct. 10, 1979: Pac-Man Brings Gaming Into Pleistocene Era. Wired.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. “[Bandai Namco] puts the date at May 22, 1980 and is planning an official 25th anniversary celebration next year.”
  3. Year 1980 shown on North American Pac-Man title screen.
  4. Green, Chris (June 17, 2002). Pac-Man. Salon.com. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  5. McDonald, Glenn (2004-03-29). "A Brief Timeline of Video Game Music". GameSpot. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  6. Goldberg, Marty (2002-01-31). "Pac-Man: The Phenomenon: Part 1". Classicgaming.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  7. Parish, Jeremy (2004). "The Essential 50: Part 10 - Pac Man". 1UP.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  8. The Legacy of Pac-Man.
  9. Pac Man Bootleg Board Information.
  10. Kohler, Chris (2005). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Brady Games. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. 
  11. "Daijisen Dictionary entry for ぱくぱく (paku-paku), in Japanese". Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  12. Lammers, Susan M. (1986). Programmers at Work: Interviews. New York: Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-914845-71-3. 
  13. Bowen, Kevin (2001). Game of the Week: Defender. ClassicGaming.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  14. Player 2 Stage 4: Two Superstars. The Dot Eaters. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  15. Bowen, Kevin (2001). Game of the Week: Pac-Man. ClassicGaming.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  16. McLemore, Greg. The Top Coin-Operated Videogames of All Times. Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  17. Pac-Man Ghost Personalities at everything2.com
  18. DeMaria, Rusel & Wilson, Johnny L. (2003-12-18). High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-07-223172-6. 
  19. Mateas, Michael (2003). "Expressive AI: Games and Artificial Intelligence". Proceedings of Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, Netherlands. 
  20. Pac-Man review at OAFE
  21. Pac-Man at the Twin Galaxies Official Scoreboard. Twin Galaxies. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  22. Ramsey, David. "The Perfect Man - How Billy Mitchell became a video-game superstar and achieved Pac-Man bliss." Oxford American, issue 53. Spring 2006.
  23. Run, Gobble, Gobble, Run: Vying for Pac-Man Acclaim - New York Times
  24. Xbox.com | Calendar of Events - PAC-MAN World Championships
  25. 7800: Pac-Man Completed. - AtariAge Forums
  26. Ms. Pac-Man. Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  27. " Milton Bradley's PAC-MAN Board Game!". X-Entertainment (2003-04-14). Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  28. 1982 Milton Bradley Pac-Man. The Great Game Database.
  29. 1983 Milton Bradley Ms. Pac-Man. The Great Game Database.
  30. Gill, Chuck & Vicki. "Pac-Man non-video games". The Virtual Pac-Man Museum. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  31. The Pac-Page (including database of Pac-Man merchandise and TV show reference). Retrieved on 2008-10-24.
  32. Company credits for "Pac-Man" (1982), Internet Movie Database
  33. Entry of the Powerpill "Pacman" EP on xltronic.com
  34. SFOT-Source.com entry "Looney Tunes USA."
  35. Pacman Jones. Player bios. Tennessee Titans Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  36. "Stewie B. Goode", Season 4 Episode 28, Production no. 4ACX05
  37. Soul Survivor at the Internet Movie Database
  38. boxer: Manny Pacquiao, Boxrec.com

External Links